You’ll Never Throw Away Avocado Seed After Watching This
This article is intended to provide you with new knowledge, there is no medical advice, the opinion of your doctor is always to be preferred for everything that is diagnosis, treatment, prevention of disease, a new diet, a sports activity fitness as well as any prescription of drugs.
Enzymes – by Dr. Mariangel Leota
Our body is constituted by diverse cells on which its homeostasis depends. The pathological processes are associated with the loss of this homeostasis or equilibrium and this occurs from the basic unit that is the cell and its components.
There have been many studies over the years on the precise etiology of the different diseases that afflict the human being, one of the most studied are chronic diseases such as cancer. Cancer cells have their own characteristics, mainly focused on having numerous alterations that reproduce and disseminate without control by modifying the signal transduction pathways that control their proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.
In view of all this, scientists have devoted much effort to find molecules that are linked to these alterations either in their formation or in that they interfere in the development of the tumor cells.
And because these molecules are our guests today, and they are nothing more and nothing less than: Enzymes, very likely at this point your name sounds familiar and you go back to the biology classes of high school and ask yourself what is the point of all this, well do not despair what I will show you next will change your way of seeing many things or at least I hope so. Let’s start!
What are enzymes?
Enzymes are molecules of a protein nature that catalyze chemical reactions as long as these reactions are thermodynamically possible, mmm well wait, What does it mean to catalyze or thermodynamically possible? As the term catalyze refers to increase or accelerate a chemical reaction while thermodynamics refers to a state of equilibrium in this case between heat and the energy involved.
Then, in short, enzymes are molecules in our body that are responsible for accelerating chemical reactions, thus decreasing the activation energy, as if it were a small shortcut, and for this to happen there must be a certain heat and energy.
Well now how do enzymes really work?
Being proteins can be of different sizes, their activity is determined by the three-dimensional structure that largely determine their function, although they are of variable sizes, they tend to be larger than the substrates in which they act, to understand the mechanism of action of the enzymes were designed in their model moments.
1) Model key-lock: It was postulated by Emil Fisher in 1894, he argued that the enzyme and its substrate had some symmetry or geometric similarity so one fit into the other, as a key matches its lock or match the pieces of a puzzle, this model was discarded over time.
2) Induced lace model: It was proposed in 1958 by Daniel Koshland, and is known as a modification of the model of the “key and lock“ this proposes that the enzymes are flexible structures and this allows them to modify their shape to achieve their union and interaction with the substrate. That is to say, the enzyme acts as something moldable as plasticine, if this could be considered plasticine that can adopt multiple forms to coincide with its substrate, it is currently the accepted model.
These models show us one of the most important characteristics of enzymes, its specificity, this allows it to fulfill its basic functions:
- -Reduction of the activation energy.
- -Reduction of transition energy.
- -Formation of the Enzyme-substrate complex which provides an alternative route to the catalyzed reaction.
- -Increase the reaction rate.
At this point you know or can already remember what enzymes are and how they work in the body, now the most important thing today is to know why or what they are related to cancer, this is where this gets more interesting, cancer is considered the most common genetic disease and with the highest mortality in developed countries, in the search for new antitumor therapies more effective than the current ones, research has uncovered the great role that enzymes play in the genesis of this disease. for example, a key enzyme has arisen: choline kinase, it has been shown to be the protagonist in the design of new antitumor therapies, let’s see many of the signal transduction pathways are mediated by kinase proteins / enzymes, they regulate many aspects of cellular functioning and through research it was shown that when there is an error in the expression or function of this enzyme, the formation of various tumors.
The approach is then aimed at formulating potent inhibitors of this enzyme as an active ingredient in antitumor drugs. Inhibition of choline kinase produces a reduction in cell proliferation and prevents the growth of tumors according to the results obtained in the experimental animals.
Some cancers linked to enzymatic alterations
rutin, a systemic proteolytic enzyme that helps fight cancer ( asparagus, buckwheat etc….)
Studies in recent years such as the one carried out by the Institute for Research in Biomedicine of Barcelona Spain in collaboration with the University of Copenhagen. In the light of an enzyme related to breast cancer, the enzyme TKL2 is responsible for keeping the genome stable. phosphates to proteins, in this way gives stability to the cell nucleus which is very important.
Since a few years ago this enzyme has been linked to several diseases but it is not until now where it has been linked to a specific cancer such as breast cancer, TRL2 is found to be expressed in these patients and mutated in people with intellectual disabilities. inhibiting it could be effective in patients with breast cancer.
papain, a systemic proteolytic enzyme that helps fight cancer ( papaya)
Enzymes are often altered by external mechanisms such as food or substances ingested or exposure to the environment, in the case of liver cancer one of the most potent carcinogens known so far is aflatoxin B1 is synthesized by fungi of the genus Aspergillus .
How is it that a toxin can have such a potential for damage? Well, it initiates its carcinogenic action when at the liver level it is transformed by the cytochrome P450 complex, passing from aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin B1 8,9-epoxide able to bind proteins, nucleic acids among others forming complexes that end up causing mutations in the gene p53 (tumor suppressor gene), inhibiting it. These aflatoxins are often found in grains for human consumption, so it is necessary that all these products comply with all health standards and controls before being consumed.
There are many other cancers and diseases related to overexpression, mutation and even in several cases inhibition of enzymatic activity, we could spend a lot of time talking about it, however it is more convenient to talk about what is in your hands to be able to face this.
Our body has a considerable amount of enzymes that are a fundamental part of the operation the enzymes are not your enemies now well above mentioned that they are highly specific and with that I not only refer to the substrate where they act, but also to the environment where they act, it has to be at a specific pH according to the reaction to be catalyzed, deviations above or below its optimum pH can cause alterations in its operation.
For example in the case of gastric pepsin, which is in the stomach, it works at a pH of 2, variations in that value produce alterations in the reactions that it catalyzes, what things could produce such alterations? Well, a clear example are the foods and drinks that we ingest and some drugs.
Another important fact is the ability of certain enzyme complexes to act against free radicals and oxidative processes, such as enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, an alteration in their activity can be fatal for the cells. This enzyme has been found increased in patients diagnosed with cancer resistant to antitumor therapy.
Its relationship has been demonstrated in patients with diseases such as diabetes mellitus where it is decreased, which is why oxidative processes are not controlled and damage is accumulated in the microvasculature.
Glutathione peroxidase is a vital enzyme because it catalyses the reactions of elimination of reactive oxygen species, so its study is useful for the formulation of new therapeutic strategies in the management of diseases where it is altered.
What can you do to ensure good enzymatic functioning?
Start a diet rich in antioxidant foods, an example of this is the ketogenic diet and the consumption of green juices, remember that the best way to ensure proper enzymatic functioning is to provide the organisms with the right environment and nutrients, a diet free of processed foods , chemically modified decreases the risk of enzymatic alterations, in previous publications you can find everything about the ketogenic diet and green juices, basic and natural food can result in big changes for your life.
Always remember before starting any nutritional plan to consult with your doctor and nutritionist to apply the plan that best suits you. The changes in a lifestyle start slowly at the pace that your body marks, there are no instant cures but if significant improvements that you will see with perseverance and discipline, encourage you to start the path of prevention and a healthy life.